CharacteristicsEndosulfan is chlororganic pesticide used also under name Thiodan 35 EC as insecticide or acaricide. It was introduced into practice up to DDT. It is supplied and stored in a form of crystallic brownish substance.
More InformationThis substance is in certain extent persistent as for degragadability in environment. According to the Pesticides Action Network (PAN), half-time of decay of endosulfan in soil in aerobic conditions is 31,6 days, and 147,5 days in non-aerobic conditions.
Environment: Effects, Fate and Observed Levels
Health Effects and Effects on AnimalsIt is more toxic than DDT. Psychical problems and defects of motility and memory appeared by several chemical workers in two years after their contact with the pesticide had started. It causes first of all acute poisonings of animals but there can also be chronic poisonings due to its accumulation in fat tissues. It depends on the quantity of the substance, route of administration, but also on animals' nutritious state. Animals with a little fat are more sensitive endosulfan compared to those with a significant fat quantity.
Endosulfan dissolved in a vegetable oil is approximately ten times more toxic than in water suspensions. Young animals are more sensitive than adult ones. Fish are more sensitive than mammals while birds are on contrary more resistant. Negative effects on reproductive system were observed in fish and amphibians.
Endosulfan is a diffusion stimulant of central nervous system. Symptoms of poisoning by endosulfan include severe spasms, timidity, increased sensitivity, salivation, waste of motoric coordination. The chemical is highly toxic for water fauna, especially for fish.
It ranks with the substances harming hormonal system of animals and humans (endocrine disruptor).
Synonyms6,7,8,9,10,10-Hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide; 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-8,9,10-trinorborn-5-en-2,3-ylenebismethylene sulfite;Benzoepin , BIO 5462 , Endocel , Endosol , Endossulf.o , Endosulfan , Endosulfan (mixture of alpha and beta isomers), Endosulfan 35EC , Endosulphan , Endoszulf.n , ENT-23979 , FMC 5462 , Hexachlorohexahydromethano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin-3-oxide , Hildan , HOE 2671 , Insectophene , Kop-Thiodan , NCI-C00566 , NIA 5462 , Niagara 5,462 , OMS 570 , SD 4314 , Sulfurous acid, cyclic ester with 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-5-norbornene-2,3-dimethanol, Thifor, Thimul; thiodan, malix, cyclodan, beosit, chlortiepin, crisulfan.
Limit values for water
0,1 ug/l (the highest limit value (HLV) for a pesticide chemical (separated) (notice No. 252/2004 Coll.)
0,5 ug/l (the highest limit value (HLV) for a sum of all pesticide chemicals (notice No. 252/2004 Coll.)
0,025 ug/l (for single pesticide chemicals (notice No. 275/2004 Coll.)
0,005 ug/l (imission limit for surface waters, category of hazardous and especially hazardous chemicals (regulation No. 61/2003 Coll.)
0,5 ug/l (the maximum permissible limit of a sum of all relevant pesticide chemicals in case there is a source of drinking water (regulation No. 61/2003 Coll.)
A = 0,01 ug/l, B = 0,1 ug/l, C = 0,2 ug/l (limits according to Methodical instruction of the Czech Ministry of Environment (Bulletin of the Ministry of Environment 3/1996) for separated chlorinated organic pesticides).
Limit values for soilLimit values of organochlorine pesticides for agricultural soil (notice No. 13/1994 Coll.):
Separated: 0,01 mg/kg of dry matter
Total (sum of all chlorinated organic pesticides): 0,1 mg/kg of dry matter
Limits for soils according to the Methodical instruction of the Czech Ministry of Environment (Bulletin of the Ministry of Environment 3/1996) for separated chlorinated organic pesticides in mg/kg of dry matter:
A = 0,05, B = 2, C (residential) = 2,5, C (recreation = 5, C (average) = 10.
Limit values in food
Food of vegetal origin:
5 / 30 mg/kg (the maximum permissible content in selected product: cotton seeds / tea (notice No. 381/2007 Coll.)
0,5 mg/kg (tomatoes, soya, grapes (notice No. 381/2007 Coll.)
0,3 mg/kg (pearl)
0,1 mg/kg (other oily seeds, nuts from trees, hops)
1 mg/kg (pepper-vegetable)
0,05 mg/kg (other food of plant origin (notice 381/2007 Coll.)
Food of animal origin:
0,1 mg/kg (meat, poultry meat including fat and entrails, meat products (notice 381/2007 Coll.)
0,004 mg/kg (milk, milk products (notice 381/2007 Coll.)
0,1 mg/kg (eggs, egg products (notice 381/2007 Coll.)
EC regulation No. 149/2008 includes the maximum residua limits (MRL) also for other plant and animal products.
International Conventions and Legislation
As for t
he EU countries, endosulfan has no license (i.e. its use is banned) in Germany, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands.
PRTR (= Pollutant Release and Transfer Register) protocol of the Aarhus Convention.
Because of its threats to human health and the environment, a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan was negotiated under the Stockholm Convention in April 2011. The ban will take effect in mid 2012, with certain uses exempted for 5 additional years.
R phrasesR 36 - Irritating to eyes, R 24/25 - Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed, R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
S phrasesS 28 - After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer), S 45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible), S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste, S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet , S 1/2 - Keep locked up and out of the reach of children, S 36/37 - Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves
Resources and literature1) Holoubek, I. et al. 2003/2005: Úvodní národní inventura persistentních organických polutantů v České republice. Kapitola "Potraviny". (Preliminary national registry of POPs in the Czech Republic. Chapter: Food) Project GF/CEH/01/003: Enabling Activities to Facilitate Early Action on the Implementation of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Czech Republic. TOCOEN, s.r.o., Brno on behalf of Consortium RECETOX - TOCOEN & Associates, TOCOEN REPORT No. 249, Brno, August 2003. Version 2003, completed 2005.