The introduciton of abstrac says: The case of use of mixed fly ash and bottom ash from the Byker waste incinerator (WI) for paving footpaths between allotments in Newcastle, UK between 1994 and 1999 led to serious contamination of free range poultry by PCDD/Fs1,2. It also raised awareness about use of WI residues contaminated by PCDD/Fs. Similar cases of “Kieselrot” in Germany led to the establishment of the first standards for PCDD/Fs limits in soil3. Both cases demonstrate impacts of uncontrolled use of waste containing significant levels of PCDD/Fs in scenarios with sensitive uses. It is now broadly assumed that tighter regulatory controls over wastes since that time would prevent any repeat of such incidents. However, recently obtained information about transfers of WI residues challenges this assumption. So, we asked the question, ‘are current legislative and regulatory measures to control movement of PCDD/Fs via waste transfers effective in preventing contamination incidents?